1. ISO – measures how sensitive the camera will be to light. The lower the ISO the less sensitive to light, used when there is a lot of available light (100, 200, 400). The higher the ISO the more sensitive to light, used when there is not a lot of available light (800, 1600, 3200). Lower ISO means less noise (graininess of photo), higher ISO means more noise.
2. Shutter Speed – How fast the shutter is opening and closing to expose light to the camera sensor. measured in fractions of seconds (2, 1/15, 1/60, 1/4000). Faster shutter speeds freeze action (1/250+), slower shutter speeds slow motion (1/30 and slower). Your shutter speed should match or exceed the focal length you are at with your lens. When shutter speeds go below 1/60 sec. you need a tripod to stabilize your photo.
3. Aperture – controls how much light enters through the lens. measured in F/Stops (f/1.8, f/2.8, f/5.6, f/22). The lower the number the more light is coming through, the higher the number the less light coming through. Also controls depth of field (how much of the photo appears to be in focus). Shallow depth of field is where less of the photo is in focus. This is achieved by a larger aperture (smaller number like f/1.. Deep depth of field is where more of the photo is in focus. This is achieved by a smaller aperture (larger number like f/16).
4. Depth of Field – Amount of foreground and background that is in focus with the subject. Simply put, the blur you get behind or in front of the object in focus.
5. White balance – The process of removing unrealistic color cast, so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white in your photo. Getting the right white balance will help you get your skin tones correct sooc (see below).
6. SOOC – Straight out of camera. This is the image you get without any adjustments in photo editing software.
7. Focal Points – Picking the object/subject that YOU want to be in focus.